to infinitive

I. TO INFINITIVE To infinitive adalah kata kerja dasar yang digunakan untuk membentuk kalimat dengan kata2 : want, like, would like, have, going, ought, what, time, easy, happy, difficult, glad, dan lainnya. Pembentukan kalimat dengan memakai kata Di atas secara garis besar dapat dirumuskan sbb :

” S + want, like, would like, have, ought + to …………………..

” It + is + time, easy, difficult + to ………………….

” Induk kalimat + what + to ………………….

” S + be + going, happy, glad + to …………………..

Contoh pemakaian :

I. 1. Dengan kata want = ingin……………………………………………..

a. I want to write a letter = ………………………………………………………………………. b. She wants to join the English Speech Contest = ……………………………………………………………………….

I.2. Dengan kata like = suka……………………………………………….

a. We like to dance “Serimpi” = ……………………………………………………………………….

b. He likes to paint a scenery = ……………………………………………………………………….

I.3. Dengan kata would like = ingin ……………………………………….

a. They would like to send a letter = ………………………………………………………………………..

I.4. Dengan kata have = harus ……………………………………………..

a. You have to help your parents = ………………………………………………………………………..

b. She has to wash her own clothes = ……………………………………………………………………….

I.5 Dengan kata going = akan …………………………………………….

a. I am going to watch a basketball game = ………………………………………………………………………..

b. He is going to attend the meeting = ………………………………………………………………………..

c. We are going to have a picnic = ……………………………………………………………………….

I 6. Dengan kata ought = seharusnya……………………………………

a. You ought to go to the doctor = ………………………………………………………………………

b. She ought to stay at home = ………………………………………………………………………

I.7. Dengan kata what = apa yang harus ……………………………….

a. I forget what to buy in the market = …………………………………………………………………….

b. He remembers what to do at home = ……………………………………………………………………..

I.8. Dengan kata easy = mudah untuk …………………………………

a. It is easy to write a letter = ……………………………………………………………………..

b.It is easy to make a kite = ..………………………………………………………………………

I.9. Dengan kata difficult = susah / sulit ..……………………………….

a. It is difficult to study Mathematics = ………………………………………………………………………

b. It is difficult to climb the palm tree = ……………………………………………………………………..

I.10. Dengan kata time = saatnya / waktunya …………………………..

a. It is time to study English = ……………………………………………………………………..

b. It is time to have dinner = …………………………………………………………………….. I.11. Dengan kata happy = bahagia / senang ……………………………

a. Clara is happy to dance ‘ Gambyong ” = ………………………………………………………………………

b.We are happy to have a new house = ………………………………………………………………………

I.12. Dengan kata glad = gembira ………………………………………..

a. I am glad to meet you again = ………………………………………………………………………

b.She is glad to be at home with me = ………………………………………………………………………

I.13. Dengan kata nothing = tidak ada…… untuk ……………………..

a. There is nothing to eat here = ……………………………………………………………………..

II. INFINITIVE Tanpa TO ( Bare Infinitive ) Kata kerja dasar tanpa to dapat digunakan untuk membentuk kalimat dengan kata bantu ( Auxiliary Verbs ) : do, does, did, can, may, must, -should, shall, will, would rather, had better, might, would, dare, need, dsb.

II.1. Dengan kata2 do / does / did = apakah ……………………………..

a. Do you get up early everyday ? = …………………………………………………………………….

b. Does he like smoking ? = …………………………………………………………………….

c. Did they go to the sea last Sunday ? = …………………………………………………………………….

II.2. Dengan kata can = dapat / bisa………………………………………

a. I can speak English well = …………………………………………………………………… b. She can sing Western songs = ……………………………………………………………………

c. We can do the test easily = …………………………………………………………………… II.3. Dengan kata may / might = boleh ………………………………….

a. You may take a rest now = …………………………………………………………………… b. He may go to school by motorcycle = ……………………………………………………………………

c. They may spend the night in the hotel = …………………………………………………………………..

d. She might go with you = …………………………………………………………………..

e. We might not watch TV at night

II.4. Dengan kata must = harus ………………………………………….

a. We must obey the school laws = …………………………………………………………………..

b. She must help her mother cook in the kitchen = ………………………………………………………………….

c. The farmers must work hard in the ricefield = …………………………………………………………………..

II.5. Dengan kata should = sebaiknya ………………………………….

a. He should drink the medicines three times a day = …………………………………………………………………..

b. You should meet the headmaster in the office = …………………………………………………………………..

II.6. Dengan kata – kata shall / will / would = akan ……………………

a. I shall take a nap for an hour = ………………………………………………………………………

b. He will attend the party at 02.00 p.m = ………………………………………………………………………

c. We shall be in the tourist object at about 09.00 a.m = ……………………………………………………………………..

d. They will have listening activity in the English laboratory = ……………………………………………………………………..

e. We would help you = ……………………………………………………………………..

f. I would say ” Good bye ” to them = ………………………………………………………………………

g. She would serve us kindly = ………………………………………………………………………

Kata would juga digunakan dalam kalimat permintaan ( Request ) – artinya sudikah ………………………………………………………….?

a. Would you turn on the fan, please ? = ………………………………………………………………………

b. Would you please lend me some money ? = ……………………………………………………………………… Kalimat permintaan juga dapat menggunakan kata- kata : can / could = bisakah, may = bolehkah, atau will = maukah ………………… ?.

a. Can I have a glass of coffee, please ? = ……………………………………………………………………..

b. May she borrow your dictionary ? = …………………………………………………………………….

c. Will you please study together with me ? = …………………………………………………………………….

II.7. Dengan kata would rather = lebih suka …………………………..

a. I would rather study English = ………………………………………………………………………

b. She would rather sing Pop songs = ……………………………………………………………………

c. They would rather play volley ball = ……………………………………………………………………

II.8. Dengan kata had better = lebih baik ………………………………..

a.You had better do this work = ……………………………………………………………………

b.He had better drink tea = …………………………………………………………………… c.We had better wait for a while = ……………………………………………………………………

II.9. Dengan kata dare = berani ………………………………………..

a. He dare go alone at night = ………………………………………………………………….. b.I dare not meet the doctor = …………………………………………………………………. c.Dare you eat these hot meatball ? = …………………………………………………………………. Kata dare juga dapat digunakan untuk menunjukkan ketidak sukaan – ( marah ) artinya beraninya ……………………………………………… ?

a.How dare you touch my bag ? = …………………………………………………………………….. b.How dare she speak aloud to you ? = …………………………………………………………………… c.How dare they enter that empty house ? = …………………………………………………………………… II.10. Dengan kata need = perlu ………………………………………. a. He need come here = …………………………………………………………………… b. You need not wear new shoes to go for a picnic = …………………………………………………………………… c. Need we spend our money in the Super Market ? = …………………………………………………………………… II.11.Dengan kata let us ( let’s ) = mari / marilah kita ……………….. a. Let’s begin our lesson = …………………………………………………………………… b. Let’s go home now = …………………………………………………………………… III. TO BE To be adalah kata kerja bentuk infinitive dengan to. Bentuk ini juga dapat digunakan untuk membentuk kalimat dengan kata 2 : want, like , dsb. *Untuk membentuk kalimat Present Tense,be berubah menjadi :am, is, are *Untuk membentuk kalimat Past Tense, am, is, berubah menjadi was, dan are berubah menjadi were *Dan was, were akan berubah menjadi been apabila kita ingin membentuk kalimat Perfect Tense III.1. To be a. I want to be a pilot = ……………………………………………………………………. b. He likes to be a doctor = ……………………………………………………………………. c. They have to be here now = ……………………………………………………………………. d. Shinta has to be at school on time = ……………………………………………………………………. e. Rudy wants to be honest to her = …………………………………………………………………… III.2. Am,is, are, pada kalimat Present Tense III.2.1.Dengan menggunakan kata sifat ( Adjective ) a. I am sick = ………………………………………… b. Joni is clever = ………………………………………… c. You are diligent = ………………………………………… d. He and I are busy now = ………………………………………… e. Tina is absent today = ………………………………………… III.2.2. Dengan menggunakan kata keterangan ( Adverb ) a. We are here now = ………………………………………… b. She is on time = ………………………………………… c. It is far from here = ………………………………………… d. They are still in bed = ………………………………………… e. Joni is in abroad = ………………………………………… III.2.3. Dengan menggunakan kata benda ( Nouns ) a. He is a fisherman = ………………………………………… b.That is not an umbrella = ………………………………………… c. Rosy and I are singers = ………………………………………… d. That thing is a knife = ………………………………………… e. There are not rats here = ………………………………………… III.2.4. Dengan kata kerja Past Participle untuk membentuk kalimat pasif a. I am not invited by Susy = …………………………………………………………………….. b. She is called by her boy friend = …………………………………………………………………….. c. We are allowed to go to the mountain = …………………………………………………………………….. d. Are you given a present by your teacher ? =……………………………………………………………………… e. Is he helped by his father ? III.3.Penggunaan To be dalam kalimat Past Tense : a. I was late yesterday = …………………………………………………………………….. b. He was at home last Sunday = …………………………………………………………………….. c. You were busy this morning = …………………………………………………………………….. d. They were very happy a week ago = …………………………………………………………………….. e. She was not afraid to go alone last night = ……………………………………………………………………. III.4. Penggunaan To be pada kalimat Perfect Tense : a. I have been here for an hour = ……………………………………………………………………. b. She has been ill since last week = ……………………………………………………………………. c. We have been studying English for three years = ………………………………………………………………………….. d. Mr. John has been visiting Indonesia since a year ago = …………………………………………………………………… e. They have not been at home since yesterday morning = …………………………………………………………………… IV. GERUND Gerund adalah kata kerja bentuk – ing ( Present Participle ) yang berfungsi sebagai kata benda ( Nouns ) IV.1. Gerund berfungsi sebagai subyek ( Subject ) : a. Singing is my hobby = …………………………………………………………………. b. Studying English is not difficult = …………………………………………………………………. c. Climbing mountains is very exciting = …………………………………………………………………. d. Jogging in the morning is healthful = …………………………………………………………………. e. Dancing ” Pendhet ” is not easy = ………………………………………………………………….. IV.2. Gerund berfungsi sebagai obyek ( Object ) : a. I like singing = ……………………………………. b. She loves dancing = ……………………………………. c. We stop talking = ……………………………………. d. His hobby is painting = ……………………………………. e. He does not like reading = ……………………………………. IV.3. Gerund dipakai untuk kalimat larangan ( Prohibition ) : a. No smoking ! = ……………………………………. b. No swimming ! = ……………………………………. c. No fishing ! = ……………………………………. d. No trespassing ! = ……………………………………. e. No parking ! = ……………………………………. IV.4. Gerund digunakan setelah preposisi / kata depan ( Preposition ) : after, before, without, for, by, in, dsb. a. After studying, I go to bed = ………………………………………………………………….. b. Wash your hands before having meals = …………………………………………………………………. c. He answers without thinking = …………………………………………………………………. d. She needs money for buying clothes = …………………………………………………………………. e. We pass the exams by studying hard = …………………………………………………………………. f. Be careful in crossing the busy road = …………………………………………………………………. IV.5. Gerund digunakan sesudah kata no use / useless = tak ada gunanya: a. It is no use fighting with your friend = ………………………………………………………………………… b. It is useless arguing with him = ……………………………………………………………………….. c. It is no use helping a lazy boy = ………………………………………………………………………. d. It is useless complaining like that = ………………………………………………………………………. e. It is no use cooking too much rice = ………………………………………………………………………. IV.6. Gerund digunakan sesudah kata need = perlu : a. My car needs washing = ………………………………………………………………………. b. Her shoes need polishing = ………………………………………………………………………. c. This floor needs sweeping = ………………………………………………………………………. d. Your bicycle needs repairing = ………………………………………………………………………. e. These plants need watering = ………………………………………………………………………. IV.7. Gerund digunakan sesudah kata mind = keberatan : a. She minds waiting for you = ………………………………………………………………………. b. I don’t mind walking with him = ………………………………………………………………………. c. Do you mind turning on the fan ? = ………………………………………………………………………. d. He doesn’t mind moving the back = ………………………………………………………………………. e. Would you mind sitting beside me, please ? IMPERATIVE Imperative adalah kata kerja yang digunakan untuk membentuk kalimat perintah ( Command ) dan atau larangan ( Prohition ). I. Membentuk kalimat perintah ( Command )dengan infinitive : 1. Stand up over there = …………………………………………. 2. Sit down here = ………………………………………….. 3. Open the door = …………………………………………. 4. Close the window = …………………………………………. 5. Repeat once again = …………………………………………. II.Untuk membentuk kalimat larangan ( Prohibition ) kita tambahkan kata ” Don’t ” = Jangan. 1.Don’t turn on the fan ! = …………………………………………. 2.Don’t sit down ! = …………………………………………. 3.Don’t sleep on the floor ! = …………………………………………. 4.Don’t talk to your friend ! = …………………………………………. 5.Don’t eat in class ! = …………………………………………. III.Membentuk kalimat perintah / larangan dengan kata sifat Adjective) : Rumus : Be + Adjective 1. Be honest ! = …………………………………………. 2. Be patient ! = …………………………………………. 3. Be careful! = …………………………………………. 4. Be diligent ! = …………………………………………. 5. Be quiet ! = …………………………………………. 6. Don’t be lazy ! = …………………………………………. 7. Don’t be careless ! = …………………………………………. 8. Don’t be angry ! = …………………………………………. 9. Don’t begreedy ! = …………………………………………. 10.Don’t be noisy ! = …………………………………………. IV. Membentuk kalimat perintah / larangan dengan kata benda ( Nouns ) : Rumus : Be + Occupation ( Pekerjaan ) 1. Be a teacher ! = …………………………………………. 2. Be a doctor ! = …………………………………………. 3. Be a nurse ! = …………………………………………. 4. Be a soldier ! = …………………………………………. 5. Be a pilot ! = …………………………………………. 6. Don’t be a police ! = …………………………………………. 7. Don’t be a robber ! = …………………………………………. 8. Don’t be a thief ! = …………………………………………. 9. Don’t be a liar ! = …………………………………………. 10. Don’t be a killer ! = …………………………………………. V. Untuk membentuk kalimat perintah / larangan yang halus / sopan,- kita tambahkan kata : “Please” yang artinya : silahkan, mohon, to long, harap. 1. Sweep the floor, please = …………………………………………. 2. Drink the tea, please = …………………………………………. 3. Please tidy your clothes = …………………………………………. 4. Move this table, please = …………………………………………. 5. Please be silent = …………………………………………. 6. Don’t shut the door, please = ………………………………………….. 7. Please don’t be cruel = ………………………………………….. 8. Don’t be stupid, please = ………………………………………….. 9. Please don’t be a dancer = ………………………………………….. 10.Don’t be a singer, please = ………………………………………….. ================= PLEASE BE YOURSELF =============== SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE adalah bentuk kalimat yang digunakan untuk menunjukkan suatu perbuatan, pekerjaan atau kegiatan yang menjadi kebiasaan ataupun dilakukan sehari-hari dan menjadi kebenaran umum. I. Simple Present Tense yang menunjukkan kebiasaan : 1. Amir writes a short story = …………………………………………………… 2. I study by myself = …………………………………………………… 3 .My father reads a newspaper = …………………………………………………… 4. We do not swim in the sea = …………………………………………………… 5. Her brother does not smoke = …………………………………………………… II. Simple Present Tense dengan menggunakan keterangan waktu : Every = setiap / tiap – tiap. 1. I study everyday = …………………………………………………… 2. We go to Bali every year = …………………………………………………… 3. He plays chess every Sunday = …………………………………………………… 4. They watch TV every night = …………………………………………………… 5. She cooks soup every week = …………………………………………………… III.Simple Present Tense digunakan untuk menyatakan kebenaran umum : 1. Sugar is sweet = …………………………………………………… 2. Fire is hot = …………………………………………………… 3. People drink water = …………………………………………………… 4. Cows eat grass = …………………………………………………… 5. The sun rises in the east = …………………………………………………… IV. Simple present tense dengan keterangan waktu : always, often, sometimes, – usually, seldom, ever, dan never. 1. I always do my homework = …………………………………………………… 2. He often comes late = …………………………………………………… 3. Astri sometimes helps me = …………………………………………………… 4. You usually work hard = …………………………………………………… 5. She seldom eats meat = …………………………………………………… 6. We ever go to Mount Kelud = …………………………………………………… 7. They never drink beer = …………………………………………………… V. Simple Present Tense dengan menggunakan kata keterangan : once, twice, three times, dsb. 1. I go to the beach once a week = …………………………………………… 2. We take a bath twice a day = …………………………………………… 3. He sees a film three times a month = …………………………………………… 4. They visit the temple four times a year = ………………………………………….. VI. Simple Present Tense dengan menggunakan Kata Depan ( Preposisi ) : in, at, on, dsb. 1. I do jogging in the morning = …………………………………………… 2. He studies his lessons at night = …………………………………………… 3. She goes shopping on Sunday = …………………………………………… 4. We have long vacation in July = …………………………………………… 5. They take an English course in 2007 = …………………………………………… VII. Pola Kalimat ( Sentence Patterns ) Simple Present Tense : A. Kalimat Positif ( Positive Sentence ) : ( + ). Subject + Verb I / Verb I+s/es + Object / Adverb 1. I like meat balls in this stall = …………………………………………… 2. He spends some money everyday = …………………………………………… 3. She watches bowling in the stadium = …………………………………………… B. Kalimat Negatif ( Negative Sentence ) : ( – ). Subject + Do / Does + Not + Verb I + Object / Adverb 1. I do not like chicken noodles in your stall = ………………………………………… 2. He does not take the salt in the bottle = ………………………………………… 3. She does not watch TV at school = ………………………………………… C. Kalimat Introgatif ( Interrogative Sentence ) : ( ? ). Do / Does + Subyek + Verb I + Object / Adverb 1. Do you like fried chicken ? = …………………………………………… 2..Does he want to take a bath ? = …………………………………………… 3. Do they need much money ? = ……………………………………………

misbach ===============================================================

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